European Ancestors – Migration Series (8) – Internment

European Migration Series
© Julie Goucher, August 2022

This post is part of a series about European Migration. You can read the complete series HERE.

Internment is an interesting element of migration, and relates to citizens, rather than those involved in military service, which we will discuss in other posts.

During a period of war, it is not just the Countries that are at war that intern citizens, it is also the Axis powers, those associating themselves with one of the parties, and those other countries that are linked – Let me provide an few examples from the Second World War:

  • Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, as did Russia, though two weeks later, on 17 September 1939. Polish citizens were taken by both Germany and Russia to work and support the regime that had taken them. That did not necessarily mean that Polish citizens interned by Germany, actually experienced their internment in Germany. Internees could be held anywhere in the wider German area, which in the early days of the war included Austria, and eventually included other territories taken through war. It was also not outside of the realms of possibility that those interned could be moved from one location to another, and doing so in an enforced manner. Furthermore, life events were still continuing – effectively births and deaths.
  • On 3 September 1939 the United Kingdom declared war on Germany in response to the invasion of Poland. That declaration of war included a number of countries that fell under the auspices of the Crown and meant that those countries were also at war with Germany, such as Canada, Australia, New Zealand, India and many, many other countries. Equally those countries who were allies of Germany were also at war with countries under the Crown.
  • After 1941 we see a further shifts of allegiances, and those shifts meant that some  internments were not the most obvious, and we will look at some of those in the coming months.
  • What about German and Austrians living in Britain and other countries under the auspices of the Crown? Well those that were of German, Austrian and later on Italian heritage were viewed as possible threats. For some they had been in Britain or her territories for many, many years were seen in a favourable position, for those that were not, they were interned whilst individuals were assessed – more on this later on in the series. Those that swore allegiance to the Crown through the formal process of Naturalisation were not under review.

There are a great many elements at play here, enforcement, migration and the wider history of the time period, added to which that life events still took place and it is easy to see why those undertaking One-Name Studies or Surname research need to research on a global level, albeit gradually. As we research, whether that is our individual families or a wider project, it is important to realise and remember that our ancestors or those we research did not exist in isolation of history.

Posted in European Ancestors, European Migration Series, Europeans beyond Europe, Poland, Ukraine | Leave a comment

European Ancestors – Migration Series (7) – Following Military Service

European Migration Series
© Julie Goucher, August 2022

This post is part of a series about European Migration. You can read the complete series HERE.

There are several examples of migration to the United Kingdom from parts of Europe in the years following the Second World War.

Firstly is the Polish military and others who, following the Resettlement Act of 1947 were able to remain living in the UK.

Second is the Ukrainian Prisoners of War who were forced to fight with the German soldiers. Following the Victory in Europe, and the subsequent liberation by the Red Army many Ukrainian POWs did not want to go back home, for fear of reprisals, thus a great many chose to remain in the United Kingdom or went to other Commonwealth Countries, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and elsewhere.

 

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European Ancestors – Migration Series (6) – Creating a Better Life

European Migration Series
© Julie Goucher, August 2022

This post is part of a series about European Migration. You can read the complete series HERE.

This is a much less specific migration move, in terms of reasons, locations and even purpose. Migrating for a better life is very personable.

Let us look back at the position of Europe. Between 1550 and 1770 there was significant exploration to other parts of the world, with Spain and Portugal leading the way. In addition to Spain and Portugal, the Netherlands, France and Britain began exploration and claiming territory as their own.

That claiming of territory meant that nationals of that country had the scope of being able to migrate, either in with a permanent aim, or even in part, though that depended on the employment that was being undertaken. Some commonality between all five countries above, was the establishing of colonies in the Americas, or what we would class now as north America (Canada included), and south America or what is seen as Latin America.

North America provided the opportunity for migration; establishing communities who wanted more opportunity and more freedom. Over the decades there were many migrants to America, whether that was to the New England region or elsewhere in the country. Some were tempted by religious freedom, others by acquiring land through Land Grants, or just the ability to achieve something that was better than in the native country.

Over the coming weeks as this series develops and expands, we will examine some specific reasons, or migration groups.

Posted in European Ancestors, European Migration Series, Europeans beyond Europe | Leave a comment

European Ancestors – Migration Series (5) – Enforced Migration

European Migration Series
© Julie Goucher, August 2022

This post is part of a series about European Migration. You can read the complete series HERE.

Probably the most obvious example of enforced migration is that of the Jewish population through the Nazi years. Moved to locations at the whim of a regime that did not look upon, nor treat those of different faiths, or lifestyles, the same as those deemed “perfect’. Those taken to other parts of Europe during the Second World War as “slave labour” are also included here.

Another significant example is that of those enslaved, taken from their countries or locations and moved to other areas or countries, many of those locations governed by European Empires.

There are other examples, where intolerance to a way of life, such as that of the Roma or Traveller community forcing a group of people, on a mass scale to choose between adapting to the norm, or moving on. I will be covering Roma and Travellers and many others later in this series.

Border changes, are often the catalyst for enforced migration, through a demonstrative way of intolerance – other examples are the mass movement of peoples following the independence of India from Britain, or the treatment of the Greeks, following border changes with Bulgaria, and there are many other examples.

Providing a group of people with a choice of conform or imprisonment (or worse), is not inclusive, and whilst on the face of it, it does not seem to be enforcement, it is.

Posted in European Ancestors, European Migration Series, Europeans beyond Europe, Genealogy | Leave a comment

European Ancestors – Migration Series (4) – Terminology

European Migration Series
© Julie Goucher, August 2022

This post is part of a series about European Migration. You can read the complete series HERE.

Migration has lots of terms that are often interchangeable, even though some of them are not aimed at the particular migration group.

  • Emigration – Leaving a country of which you are a national.
  • Immigration – Immigrants are those who have migrated to a country.
  • Alien – A term used to reference those who are foreign nationals.
  • Naturalisation – Someone who is swearing their allegiance to a country that they are not a citizen of.
  • Denization – A term granting limited Naturalisation to those who were recorded as an alien.
  • Internees – Those who were segregated because they are deemed to be potentially enemies of the country in which they live.
  • Prisoners of War – Those captured during a war situation, whilst serving in a military service.
  • Refugees – Those who are fleeing their home location, but remaining within the borders of their own Country.
  • Repatriation – Those who were held during a war, and subsequently returned to their home soil.
  • Displacement – Those fleeing their home, but moving across their Country borders.
  • Enforced Migration – This is where we see citizens of one country forced to migrate elsewhere, which might be across Country borders.
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European Ancestors – Migration Series (3) – Migration Tips

European Migration Series
© Julie Goucher, August 2022

This post is part of a series about European Migration. You can read the complete series HERE.

Todays post is about Migration Tips:

  1. Be open minded, people were more migratory than we think.
  2. Whilst many migration journeys were forever, not all were, some migrants returned home, or migrated elsewhere. Others made repeat trips. Some of the movement was planned, others were made as plans changed or events made further movement necessary.
  3. Occupations can be a good way of establishing where someone went to, or what region they came from.
  4. Migration is the reason why surnames appear in a variety of places, and that is why One-Name Studies have a global focus.
  5. Be creative with how the surname of your ancestors might be spelt. Accents and unfamiliarity with names can play a part in how people are documented.
  6. Families may have scattered, migrating to more than one country.
  7. Migration might not have been direct, arrival may have been to a port in another country, then travelling over land, or arrival in the destination country, but the journey continuing over land.
  8. Global migration policies often impacted and influenced where migration took place.
  9. Where people did not migrate to, is just as important as where they did.
  10. Understanding the context of our ancestors is vital, as it provides a framework from which we can research

© Julie Goucher, 2016

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European Ancestors – Migration Series (2) Reasons for Migration

European Migration Series
© Julie Goucher, August 2022

This post is part of a series about European Migration. You can read the complete series HERE.

Regardless of the timeframe for the migration, the basic reasons haven’t really changed very much.

  • Fleeing Persecution
  • Escaping wars, of varying scale
  • Creating a better life
  • Enforced Migration
  • Migration Schemes
  • Work opportunities
  • Prisoners of War & Internment
  • Following Military Service
  • Refugees

Over the next few posts, I am going to take each of the points above and give some examples, some of which might overlap other points listed above. Furthermore, some of the examples might develop into a more specific posts as the Migration Series progresses.

Think of migration as an umbrella 🌂 , and once opened ☂ each spoke becoming one of the points above, some of which will develop into mini umbrellas. Migration is so much more than passenger lists.

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European Ancestors – Migration Series (1) – Introduction

European Migration Series
© Julie Goucher, August 2022

This post is part of a series about European Migration. You can read the complete series HERE.

The story of migration, and understanding that story is of importance to genealogists and family historians.  In the understanding of that story, it enables us to have a more rounded view of snapshots of the lives of individuals in context, when so many, many people left their native lands. This is much in the same way a camera takes lots of mini pictures in poor light, it uses the multiple images to build the final picture taken, so viewers see a clear and concise image.

Migration is deep routed in my own family, and has led me over three decades to explore the lives of people and places, which eventually developed beyond my own family, to become a really important element of my research and interest.

I am the daughter of a migrant, albeit, a late migrant in the grand scheme of things. It was that migration and the understanding of it that led me to develop and expand my research, morphing into the formation of my One-Name Study for the Orlando surname, and my One-Place Study for the Sicilian commune of Sutera. Though my interest didn’t stop there. Other migrants arrived and deported both Britain and other parts of the globe, as military personnel, convicts and free settlers to Australia, and those who were desperate for a new life or even just to see what another country was like, before returning back to home turf, as my Grandmother’s uncle did.

Both my British and Sicilian family has migrated and travelled to Australia, New Zealand, Canada, United States, India, South Africa, Argentina and many others besides, and that is before I even focus on my specific studies.

The reality is, that migration is so much more than they got on a boat and went to ……There is the:

  • HOW did they go?
  • WHY did they go?
  • WHEN did they go?
  • WHERE did they go?
  • WHO did they go with?
  • WHAT did they do when they were en-route, when they arrived, and beyond?

© Julie Goucher, 2016

A deeper understanding is essential, as that gives us context, foundations and above all clarity, for understanding

Your People, in Their time and in Their Place

Whenever I talk about European Ancestors either in a presentation, workshop or even the Pharos course, I try to stress this. The subject is a huge one, my written text is about 50,000 words and has been sliced and diced in various ways, for various reasons. In addition, I am still writing, adding to the original text.

The European Migration Series is going to be a long series, some of the posts might be on consecutive days, while others might be a week or so apart. The series is currently scooped out on a rather large pile of index cards, and is subject to be tweaked over the coming weeks. Different migration groups likely share commonality with other groups, regardless of the catalyst for migrating, how they migrated, when they migrated, why they migrated and where they migrated to.

The posts are going to cover a wide range of reasons, locations, timespans, individuals and resources etc. The commonality might mean there is going to be some overlap and I will attempt to keep posts short and concise.

What to do next? To get the most out of the series , or for European research guidance there are a few things I recommend:

  1. Subscribe via email, Facebook or Twitter follow, then you will be alerted to new posts when they publish
  2. Leave comments or questions on posts – I might answer questions at the bottom of the post, create a separate Q & A or do both
  3. The European Ancestors section on the menu bar has a link for this series and a variety of other posts – what is currently published is a mere fraction of what I have.
  4. Consider taking the Pharos European Ancestors course (750)
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Miscellaneous Workbook For One-Name Studies

© Julie Goucher, 2019

Some months ago I said I would share how I kept spreadsheets full of unprocessed and unrelated data prior to it being added to my software database. Apologies for a long wait, I hope this post goes some way to helping those with questions.

I use Excel, but this will work with the Google and Mac equivalents. Also the aesthetics will look different if you are on a tablet Apple or Android, or on a laptop etc.

When I open Excel and create a new workbook I create a series of sheets, these are the tabs at the bottom (or might be at the top).  The first sheet is always a guidance sheet, this tells you a variety of things, depending on the purpose of the file.

If you look at the download of the 1837 onwards GRO download which can be found HERE you can see an example, the first sheet is the Guidance sheet, the next three sheets are the births, marriages and death sheets.

In my Miscellaneous data workbook I have the guidance sheet, and instead of having different workbooks, each with a sheet of different data I have moved the individual sheets to the Miscellaneous workbook. That way, each different data group retains the columns for each field header and yet there are not lots of different spreadsheet files.

There is a trade off, a workbook marked Miscellaneous is not exactly helpful, but the alternative is lots of different spreadsheet workbooks, and one worksheet containing a variety of field headings means the amount of columns could and, in my case did, mean the open workbook went off the screen and I had to resort to scrolling across, which was just unhelpful.

I should point out that for each study (or database) I have a Miscellaneous workbook. My file names are defined as:

  • BUTCHER – Miscellaneous
  • ORLANDO – Miscellaneous
  • VIRCIGLIO – Miscellaneous
  • EUROPE – Miscellaneous

The first two are my One-Name Studies, the third is a surname study that is unregistered with the Guild of One-Name Studies currently, and the fourth is my gathering of data resources for European Ancestors.

The first lesson in the Practicalities of a One-Name Studies course, looks at spreadsheets, their uses, creations and why they are not a great fit for storing a One-Name Study long term – correct tool for the job!

My method is effectively using a spreadsheet as a holding pen. Once I add the data to my database, which is generally when I have expanded the detail beyond one person, I annotate the line as done, eventually deleting the sheet from the workbook.

Whilst the sheet maybe removed from the Miscellaneous workbook, it moves to the archived workbook, just in case I want to refer back to it in the future.

Posted in Genealogy, Introduction to One-Name Studies (Pharos course 901), Practicalities of a One-Name Studies (Pharos Course 903) | 3 Comments

Pharos Course Dates for 2023

Copyright – Pharos Tutors

I have yet to update the relevant sections of this site, but I have agreed the following dates for the various courses that I teach:

Introduction to One-Name Studies (901) Details can be found HERE

24 January and 4 July

Practicalities of a One-Name Study (903) Details can be found HERE

****Last intake for 2022 – 27 September****

7 March and 5 September

Advanced One-Name Studies (902) Details can be found HERE

17 October 2023

****1 November 2022****

Researching Ancestors in Continental Europe (750) Details can be found HERE

18 April 2023

Posted in Advanced One-Name Studies (Pharos Course 902), European Ancestors, Genealogy, Introduction to One-Name Studies (Pharos course 901), One-Name Studies, Practicalities of a One-Name Studies (Pharos Course 903) | Leave a comment